About cervical cancer
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- Moscicki AB, Schiffman M, Kjaer S, Villa LL. Chapter 5: Updating the natural history of HPV and anogenital cancer. Vaccine. 2006;24(Suppl 3):S3/42–S3/51.
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- Population Reference Bureau and ACCP. Preventing Cervical Cancer Worldwide. Washington, DC; Seattle, WA: Population Reference Bureau; 2004. Available at:
- Clifford G, Franceschi S, Diaz M, Munoz N, Villa LL. Chapter 3: HPV type-distribution in women with and without cervical neoplastic diseases. Vaccine. 2006;24(Suppl 3):S26–S34.
- Munoz N, Castellsague X, de Gonzalez AB, Gissmann L. Chapter 1: HPV in the etiology of human cancer. Vaccine. 2006;24(Suppl. 3):S1–S10.
- Smith JS, Lindsay L, Hoots B, et al. Human papillomavirus type distribution in invasive cervical cancer and high-grade cervical lesions: A meta-analysis update. International Journal of Cancer. 2007;121(3):621–632.
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- World Health Organization (WHO). Comprehensive cervical cancer control: a guide to essential practice. Geneva: WHO; 2006.
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- Villa LL. Biology of genital human papillomaviruses. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2006;94(Suppl 1):S3–S7.
- National Cancer Institute website. Cervical Cancer Prevention page. Available at: www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/
prevention/cervical. Accessed December 23, 2009.
- Winer RL, Hughes JP, Feng Q, et al. Condom use and the risk of genital human papillomavirus infection in young women. The New England Journal of Medicine. 2006;354(25):2645–2654.
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- Merck & Co., Inc. Gardasil® package insert. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck & Co. Inc; 2009. Available at: www.merck.com/product/home.html#G.
- Electronic Medicines Compendium website. Cervarix Summary of Product Characteristics page. Available at:
emc.medicines.org.uk/medicine/20204/SPC/Cervarix. Accessed December 23, 2009.
- Ault KA, FUTURE II Study Group. Effect of prophylactic human papillomavirus L1 virus-like-particle vaccine on risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2, grade 3, and adenocarcinoma in situ: a combined analysis of four randomised clinical trials. Lancet. 2007;369(9576):1861–1868.
- Paavonen J, Naud P, Salmeron J, et al. Efficacy of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine against cervical infection and precancer caused by oncogenic HPV types (PATRICIA): final analysis of a double-blind, randomised study in young women. Lancet. 2009;374(9686):301–314.
- Bonanni P, Boccalini S, Bechini A. Efficacy, duration of immunity and cross protection after HPV vaccination: a review of the evidence. Vaccine. 2009;27(Suppl 1):A46–A53.
- Romanowski B, GlaxoSmithKline Vaccine HPV-007 Study Group. Sustained efficacy and immunogenicity of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine: analysis of a randomised placebo-controlled trial up to 6.4 years. Lancet. 2009;374(9706):1975–1985.
- Rowhani-Rahbar A, Mao C, Hughes JP, et al. Longer term efficacy of a prophylactic monovalent human papillomavirus type 16 vaccine. Vaccine. 2009;27(41):5612–5619.
- Olsson SE, Villa LL, Costa RL, et al. Induction of immune memory following administration of a prophylactic quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6/11/16/18 L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine. Vaccine. 2007;25(26):4931–4939.
- Herrero R. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines: limited cross-protection against additional HPV types. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2009;199(7):919–922.
- Slade BA, Leidel L, Vellozzi C, et al. Postlicensure safety surveillance for quadrivalent human papillomavirus recombinant vaccine. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2009;302(7):750–757.
- WHO. WHO Position Paper on HPV Vaccines. Weekly Epidemiological Record. 2009;84(15):117–132. Available at: www.who.int/wer/2009/wer8415/en.
- GAVI Alliance website. Which vaccines to invest in and when.
GAVI's strategic approach. Available at:
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- PATH. Shaping a strategy to introduce HPV vaccines in Uganda. Seattle, WA: PATH; 2009.
- Tsu VD, Pollack AE. Preventing cervical cancer in low-resource settings: how far have we come and what does the future hold? International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics. 2005;89(Suppl 2):S55–S59.
- Franco EL, Cuzick J, Hildesheim A, de Sanjose S. Chapter 20: Issues in planning cervical cancer screening in the era of HPV vaccination. Vaccine. 2006;24(Suppl 3):S171–S177.
- Wright TC, Bosch FX, Franco EL, et al. Chapter 30: HPV vaccines and screening in the prevention of cervical cancer; conclusions from a 2006 workshop of international experts. Vaccine. 2006;24(Suppl 3):S3/251–S3/261.
Kim JJ, Goldie SJ. Cost effectiveness analysis of including boys in a human papillomavirus vaccination programme in the United States. British Medical Journal. 2009;339:b3884.
- PATH. Current and future HPV vaccines: promises and challenges. Seattle, WA: PATH; 2006.
- Stanley M, Gissmann L, Nardelli-Haefliger D. Immunobiology of human papillomavirus infection and vaccination - implications for second generation vaccines. Vaccine. 2008;26(Suppl 10):K62–K67.
- Hildesheim A, Markowitz L, Avila MH, Franceschi S. Chapter 27: Research needs following initial licensure of virus-like particle HPV vaccines. Vaccine. 2006;24(Suppl 3):S227–S232.
- Hung CF, Ma B, Monie A, Tsen SW, Wu TC. Therapeutic human papillomavirus vaccines: current clinical trials and future directions. Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy. 2008;8(4):421–439.
- Sherris J, Wittet S, Kleine A, et al. Evidence-based, alternative cervical cancer screening approaches in low-resource settings. International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health. 2009;35(3):147–154. Available at:
- Kitchener HC, Castle PE, Cox JT. Chapter 7: Achievements and limitations of cervical cytology screening. Vaccine. 2006;24 Suppl 3:S3/63–S3/70.
- US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. HPV-Associated Cancers and Poverty Levels page. Available at:
www.cdc.gov/cancer/hpv/statistics/poverty.htm. Accessed December 23, 2009.
- Sankaranarayanan R, Bhatla N, Gravitt PE, et al. Human Papillomavirus Infection and Cervical Cancer Prevention in India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Nepal. Vaccine. 2008;26(Suppl 12):M43–M52.
- Denny L, Quinn M, Sankaranarayanan R. Chapter 8: Screening for cervical cancer in developing countries. Vaccine. 2006;24(Suppl. 3):S71–S77.
- Agurto I, Arrossi S, White S, et al. Involving the community in cervical cancer prevention programs. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. 2005;89(Suppl 2):S38–S45.
- Cuzick J, Arbyn M, Sankaranarayanan R, et al. Overview of human papillomavirus-based and other novel options for cervical cancer screening in developed and developing countries. Vaccine. 2008;26 Suppl 10:K29–K41.
- Denny L, Ngan HYS. Section B: Malignant manifestations of HPV infection Carcinoma of the cervix, vulva, vagina, anus, and penis. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics. 2006;94(Suppl 1):S50–S55.
- Villa LL, Denny L. Chapter 7: Methods for detection of HPV infection and its clinical utility. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics. 2006;94(Suppl 1):S71–S80.
- Arbyn M, Sasieni P, Meijer C, Clavel C, Koliopoulos G, Dillner J. Clinical applications of HPV testing: A summary of meta-analyses. Vaccine. 2006;24:78–89.
- US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website. FDA approved first DNA test for two types of human papillomavirus [press release]. Silver Spring, MD: FDA; March 13, 2009. Available at:
- Sankaranarayanan R, Gaffikin L, Jacob M, Sellors J, Robles S. A critical assessment of screening methods for cervical neoplasia. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. 2005;89 Suppl 2:S4–S12.
- Sellors J. HPV in screening and triage: towards an affordable test. HPV Today. 2009;8:4–5.
- Castro W, Gage J, Gaffikin L, et al. Effectiveness, Safety, and Acceptability of Cryotherapy: A Systematic Literature Review. Seattle: PATH; 2003. Cervical Cancer Prevention Issues in Depth, No.1. www.path.org/publications/details.php?i=687
- Jacob M, Broekhuizen FF, Castro W, Sellors J. Experience using cryotherapy for treatment of cervical precancerous lesions in low-resource settings. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. 2005;89 (Suppl 2):S13–S20.
- Denny L, Kuhn L, De Souza M, Pollack A, Dupree W, Wright TJr. Screen-and-treat approaches for cervical cancer prevention in low-resource settings: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2005;294(17):2173–2181.
- Goldie SJ, Kim JJ, Myers E. Cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer screening. Vaccine. 2006;24:164–170.
- Blumenthal PD, Gaffikin L, Deganus S, Lewis R, Emerson M, Adadevoh S. Cervical cancer prevention: safety, acceptability, and feasibility of a single-visit approach in Accra, Ghana. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2007;196(4):407–407.
- Schiffman M, Castle PE. The Promise of Global Cervical-Cancer Prevention. New England Journal of Medicine. 2005;353(20):2101–2104.
- Sellors J, Lewis K, Kidula N, Muhombe K, Tsu V, Herdman C. Screening and management of precancerous lesions to prevent cervical cancer in low-resource settings. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2003;4(3):277–280.
- Ngan HYS, Trimble CL. A4. Preinvasive lesions of the cervix. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics. 2006;94(Suppl 1):S44–S49.
- ACCP. ACCP Strategies for Supporting Women with Cervical Cancer. Seattle: ACCP; 2004. Cervical Cancer Prevention Issues in Depth, No. 2. Available at:
- Pollack AE, Tsu VD. Preventing cervical cancer in low-resource settings: building a case for the possible.International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics. 2005;89 (Suppl 2):S1–S3.
- WHO, United Nations Population Fund. Preparing for the introduction of HPV vaccines: policy and programme guidance for countries. Geneva: WHO; 2006.
- Sherris J, Friedman A, Wittet S, Davies P, Steben M, Saraiya M. Education, training, and communication for HPV vaccines. Vaccine. 2006;24:210–218.
- Goldie SJ, Goldhaber-Fiebert JD, Garnett GP. Chapter 18: Public health policy for cervical cancer prevention: The role of decision science, economic evaluation, and mathematical modeling. Vaccine. 2006;24(Suppl 3):S155–S163.
- Garnett GP, Kim JJ, French K, Goldie SJ. Chapter 21: Modelling the impact of HPV vaccines on cervical cancer and screening programmes. Vaccine. 2006;24(Suppl. 3):S178–S186.
- Batson A, Meheus F, Brooke S. Chapter 26: Innovative financing mechanisms to accelerate the introduction of HPV vaccines in developing countries. Vaccine. 2006;24 Suppl 3:S219–S225.
- Goldie SJ, Kim JJ, Kobus K, et al. Cost-effectiveness of HPV 16, 18 vaccination in Brazil. Vaccine. 2007;25(33):6257–6270.
- Kim JJ, Kobus KE, Diaz M, O'Shea M, Van Minh H, Goldie SJ. Exploring the cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination in Vietnam: Insights for evidence-based cervical cancer prevention policy. Vaccine. 2008;26(32):4015–4024.
- Diaz M, Kim JJ, Albero G, et al. Health and economic impact of HPV 16 and 18 vaccination and cervical cancer screening in India. British Journal of Cancer. 2008;99:230–238.
- Goldie SJ, O'Shea M, Diaz M, Kim SY. Benefits, cost requirements and cost-effectiveness of the HPV16,18 vaccine for cervical cancer prevention in developing countries: policy implications. Reproductive Health Matters. 2008;16(32):86–96.
- de Melo-Martin I. The promise of the human papillomavirus vaccine does not confer immunity against ethical reflection. Oncologist. 2006;11(4):393–396.
- Zimet GD, Liddon N, Rosenthal SL, Lazcano-Ponce E, Allen B. Chapter 24: Psychosocial aspects of vaccine acceptability. Vaccine. 2006;24(Suppl. 3):S201–S209.
- Blumenthal PD, Lauterbach M, Sellors JW, Sankaranarayanan R. Training for cervical cancer prevention programs in low-resource settings: focus on visual inspection with acetic acid and cryotherapy. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. 2005;89(Suppl 2):S30–S37.
- Jacob M, Bradley J, Barone MA. Human papillomavirus vaccines: what does the future hold for preventing cervical cancer in resource-poor settings through immunization programs? Sexually Transmitted Diseases. 2005;32(10):635–640.
- Kane MA, Sherris J, Coursaget P, Aguado T, Cutts F. HPV vaccine use in the developing world. Vaccine. 2006;24:132–139.
- Bradley J, Barone M, Mahq C, Lewis R, Luciani S. Delivering cervical cancer prevention services in low-resource settings. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics. 2005;89(Suppl 2):S21–S29.