Cervical cancer library

Advocacy, policy, and financing

Featured resources

10 Key Findings and Recommendations for Effective Cervical Cancer Screening and Treatment Programs (2007)
Alliance for Cervical Cancer Prevention (ACCP)
In early 2007, the ACCP partners met to assess newly-analyzed results of key studies in India, South Africa, Peru, and Thailand. These new data spurred the partners to outline ten key findings and recommendations for global policy and practice related to cervical cancer screening and treatment in low-resource settings.

Business and Cervical Cancer: Opportunities to Save Lives (2013)
GBCHealth
GBCHealth is a global coalition of 200 private sector companies and nongovernmental organizations. The coalition recently published this five-page brief on cervical cancer prevention.

Cervical Cancer Action: 2007 to 2014 . . . and beyond (2014)
Cervical Cancer Action (CCA)
Seven years after its founding and eight years after HPV vaccines first became available, Cervical Cancer Action—a global partnership aimed at reducing cervical cancer in high-burden, low-income countries—offers a snapshot of its accomplishments to date and our vision of the work ahead.

Coalition Building: A Cornerstone of National Advocacy, Policymaking and Effective Cervical Cancer Prevention Programs (2010)
CCA
This issue brief is written for civil society leaders seeking to expand access to cervical cancer prevention and control resources in their communities. These resources include HPV vaccines for young adolescents and established and new screening and early treatment technologies for adult women. This document surveys some of these advances as a way to assist others in building new coalitions, and provides links to other advocates and working in this field.

Comprehensive cervical cancer prevention and control: a healthier future for girls and women (2013)
World Health Organization (WHO)
This WHO Guidance Note advocates for a comprehensive approach to cervical cancer prevention and control and is aimed at senior policy makers and programme managers. It describes the need to deliver effective interventions across the female life course from childhood through to adulthood.

Costs of introducing and delivering HPV vaccines in low and lower middle income countries: inputs for GAVI policy on introduction grant support to countries (2014)
Levin A, Wang SA, Levin C, Tsu V, Hutubessy R. PLoS One. 2014;9(6):e101114. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0101114.
This paper describes the data and analysis shared with GAVI policymakers regarding GAVI HPV vaccine support. It reviews why strategies and costs for HPV vaccine delivery are different from other vaccines and what is known about the cost components.

Declaration in favor of comprehensive cervical cancer prevention and control signed by 21 countries of the Americas (2008)
Pan American Health Organization
The Pan American Health Organization organized a meeting of member states in Mexico City in May 2008. Representatives of 21 participating countries drafted and endorsed this declaration.

Estimating the costs of cervical cancer screening in high-burden Sub-Saharan African countries (2014)
Mvundura M, Tsu V. International Journal of Gynecology &Obstetrics. 2014;126(2):151-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ijgo.2014.02.012.
From the abstract: Approximately US $59 million would be required to purchase treatment equipment if cryotherapy were placed at every screening facility. Approximately 20 million women would be screened over 10 years. Cost per woman screened in a screen-and-treat program was either US $3.33 or US $7.31, and cost per woman treated was either US $38 or US $71 depending on the location of cryotherapy equipment... It would take less than US $10 per woman screened to significantly decrease the cervical cancer deaths that will occur in Sub-Saharan Africa over the next 10 years.

Evidence of Support for Improved Cervical Cancer Prevention in Developing Countries (2008)
Cervical Cancer Action, International Union Against Cancer, PATH
This dossier includes statements of support for improved cancer control from governments, organizations, and individuals in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and other global regions.

Cervical cancer prevention and HPV vaccines (2014)
GAVI Alliance
This fact sheet includes information for countries interested in applying for support through the GAVI HPV vaccination demonstration programme.

Global Forum on Cervical Cancer Prevention meeting report (2013)
Global Forum on Cervical Cancer Prevention
In May 2013, a group of 30 international partners convened the Global Forum on Cervical Cancer Prevention in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The meeting aimed to accelerate the prevention of the disease worldwide by strengthening advocacy efforts, sharing best practices and increasing positive media coverage. Drawing nearly 300 participants from more than 50 countries, the forum was one of the largest cervical cancer advocacy meetings to date.

Global Guidance for Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control (2009)
International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO)
This guidance is intended as a focused update on cervical cancer prevention, screening and treatment strategies. It is intended to be complimentary to the World Health Organization's Comprehensive Cervical Cancer Control: A Guide to Essential Practice.

HPV Vaccine Adoption in Developing Countries: Cost and Financing Issues (2007)
International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, PATH
This 40-page publication addresses issues related to financing the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine and mobilizing resources to support new delivery mechanisms, which will constitute some of the most significant challenges to achieving widespread HPV vaccination in the developing world. With these cost and financing obstacles resolved, developing countries would be able to build robust programs to immunize adolescents and thus dramatically reduce the incidence of cervical cancer.

HPV Vaccine Introduction Clearing House
WHO
WHO has collected all their materials related to HPV vaccine introduction in one place with the intention of helping guide HPV vaccine policy, program, and communications managers in the development of successful strategies for the introduction and sustained delivery of HPV vaccination at a national level.

The HPV Vaccination in Japan: Issues and Options (2014)
Center for Strategic and International Studies Global Health Policy Center
This report explores how Japan's response to HPV vaccine concerns has been perceived across the globe and illustrates examples in other countries that have faced similar challenges. The paper concludes with recommendations to the Japanese government.

Human papillomavirus and HPV vaccine: technical information for policy-makers and health professionals (2007)
WHO, UNFPA
This document provides key information on HPV, HPV-related diseases and HPV vaccines, and is intended to underpin the guidance note on HPV vaccine introduction, recently produced by WHO and the United Nations Population Fund.

IAVI Policy Briefs (2008)
International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI)

  • WHO's Key Normative Processes and Institutions for Vaccines: A Primer
    This 4-page brief describes three World Health Organization (WHO) normative institutions and processes pertaining to the issuance of technical guidelines and opinions about the public health value of new vaccines, their quality, and the acceptability of their manufacturing.
    Download file (146 KB PDF)
  • Procurement and Pricing of New Vaccines for Developing Countries
    This 8-page document explains how vaccines are purchased for the public sector in developing countries, with a focus on the roles of the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), as well as the GAVI Alliance, which is the major source of vaccine financing for the poorest countries and works closely with UNICEF.
    Download file (167 KB PDF)

International Cancer Control Partnership portal
This portal is a web-based tool on cancer control planning and capacity-building, linked to non-communicable disease control and prevention.

Planning and Developing Population-Based Cancer Registration in Low- and Middle-Income Settings (2014)
WHO, International Agency for Research on Cancer, International Association of Cancer Registries
This document provides technical advice to planners and health specialists in low- and middle-income countries wishing to implement and develop cancer registries to inform cancer control policy.

Preparing for the introduction of HPV vaccines: policy and programme guidance for countries (2006)
WHO and UNFPA
This 25-page publication is based on a UNFPA/WHO Technical Consultation on HPV Vaccines and Sexual and Reproductive Health Programs, held in March 2006 in Montreux, Switzerland. It is intended to alert a broad array of stakeholders—in sexual and reproductive health, immunization, child and adolescent health, and cancer control programs—to some of the key issues surrounding the upcoming introduction of HPV vaccines against cervical cancer.

Preventing cervical cancer through better guidelines in Guatemala (2015)
PATH
This 4-page document is intended to help advocates assess policy/advocacy options, plan goals and activities, and develop a strategy for impact. Advocates worked with the Guatemalan government to create policy guidelines that incorporate new cervical cancer screening technologies, bring the country's recommendations in line with current WHO guidance, and promise to save Guatemalan women's lives from this preventable disease.

Progress in Cervical Cancer Prevention: The CCA Report Card (2012)
Cervical Cancer Action
This report assesses global readiness to fight cervical cancer using new approaches and new technologies, especially in regions where the disease is a common killer. It underscores the urgent need for the global community to prioritize cervical cancer prevention and control on global health and development agendas.

Statement from the Forum of African First Ladies Against Breast and Cervical Cancer (2010)
The First Ladies of seven African countries released this statement as part of their participation in the 4th Stop Cervical Cancer in Africa conference, held July 25-27, 2010 in Accra, Ghana.

Saving the World's Women from Cervical Cancer (2016)
Tsu V, Jerónimo J. New England Journal of Medicine. 2016;374:2509–2511.
By focusing on implementing sustainable, population-based screening on a national scale, rather than establishing limited pilot efforts based on unrealistic strategies and unsuitable technology such as Pap smears, we believe that LMICs can change the current pattern, leapfrog old technologies, ensure equitable access for rural and poor women, and reduce related mortality by half. Countries that can afford to do more than implement this basic approach, such as screening more than once or screening older women, can expect even greater disease reduction.

WHO position paper on human papillomavirus vaccines (2014)
WHO
In accordance with its mandate to provide guidance to Member States on health policy matters, WHO issues regularly updated position papers on vaccines and vaccine combinations against diseases that have an international public health impact. This position paper on HPV vaccines includes official endorsement of a two-dose vaccination schedule for girls under 15 years. Available in French and English.

Why the time is right to tackle breast and cervical cancer in low-resource settings (2014)
Tsu VD, Jeronimo J, Anderson BO. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2013;91:683–690.
This 5-page article outlines how the health concerns of women in their mid-adult years have long been given little or no attention in most low-resource settings, despite the burden of suffering that diseases such as breast and cervical cancer impose on women and their families. There are numerous opportunities to prevent cervical cancer and to improve survival in women with cancer of the breast or cervix. Further delay in taking up the opportunities that are now available will harm another generation of women.

General advocacy, policy, and financing resources

A Long and Winding Road: Getting the HPV Vaccine to Women in the Developing World (2007)
Cohen, SA. Guttmacher Policy Review. 2007;10(3):15–19.
This five-page article outlines key issues affecting HPV vaccine accessibity for women in developing countries.

Stop Cervical Cancer: Accelerating Global Access to HPV Vaccines (2006)
These background papers were prepared for the Stop Cervical Cancer conference in London on December 12–13, 2007.

The Case for Investing in Cervical Cancer Prevention (2004)
Cervical Cancer Prevention Issues in Depth No. 3. ACCP.
This 35-page publication provides evidence on the burden of disease and the importance of women’s roles in family and community life to refute the assumptions that underlie the lack of access to cervical cancer prevention services in many developing countries. It also reviews new approaches to cervical cancer prevention in low-resource settings and provides data on cost-effectiveness. This was written before HPV vaccines became available in 2006.

The Emerging Adolescent Agenda: HPV Vaccine, AIDS Prevention Research, and the New Opportunities for Reaching the Young People of the World (2006)
AIDS Vaccine Advocacy Coalition
This chapter explores why licensure of the vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV) presents the AIDS vaccine field with new opportunities.

Education, training, and communication for HPV vaccines (2006)
Sherris J, Friedman A, Wittet S, Davies P, Steben M, Saraiya M. Vaccine. 24(S3):S210–S218.
As HPV vaccines come to market, they will face education and training challenges similar to those of other new vaccines, along with HPV-specific issues. Pharmaceutical companies, public health advocates, medical trainers, and health educators need to understand their diverse audiences and respond appropriately to the needs of each. They also must use research-based communication strategies to convey the need for an HPV vaccine and to manage expectations about how the vaccine can, and cannot, protect women and men.

HPV vaccine use in the developing world (2006)
Kane M, Sherris J, Coursaget P, Aguado T, Cutts F. Vaccine. 24(S3):S132–S139.
HPV vaccine should be introduced in the framework of comprehensive cervical cancer control, and offers an opportunity to bring together a wide range of constituents who have not worked closely on vaccination. To prepare for decisions on HPV vaccine use, the sexual and reproductive health (including adolescent health), immunization, and cancer control communities need to work together to analyze the appropriate data and build international and national consensus.

Preventing Cervical Cancer Worldwide (2004)
Population Reference Bureau and ACCP
This 24-page report highlights the major findings, lessons, and recommendations from ACCP’s research and demonstration projects. ACCP has assessed and promoted prevention approaches that are inexpensive, safe, and widely acceptable. A four-page policy brief is also available. These reports were written before HPV vaccines became available in 2006.

Preventing Cervical Cancer: New Resources To Advance the Domestic and Global Fight (2012)
Guttmacher Policy Review
This 13-page article highlights the technological innovations that hold promise to lower the number of new cases of cervical cancer and to help address disparities in access to treatment. It also addresses the barriers that remain in the fight to prevent cervical cancer.

Setting the immunization agenda through advocacy and communications (2008)
The Regional Office for Europe of the World Health Organization
This 17-page report is from an expert meeting on advocacy and communication for immunization held jointly by the United Kingdom Department of Health and the WHO European Regional Office. The report includes a chapter entitled, "Introduction of new vaccines: the HPV experience."

Strengthening cervical cancer prevention and control: Report of the GAVI-UNFPA-WHO meeting (2010)
World Health Organization
The December 2009 meeting updated high-level decision-makers on comprehensive cervical cancer prevention and control, the current status of the vaccine, vaccine introduction, best practices and lessons learned to date, and agency plans for moving forward.

UNIFEM conference background papers (2007)
United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM)
These three articles were written in conjunction with the UNIFEM conference in Brussels on September 27–28, 2007, "Fight against cervical cancer: challenges and opportunities for women’s right to health."

WHO: working to ensure global quality, safety and standards in immunization
WHO
This 20-page document outlines WHO's work in the development of regulatory capacity to ensure the safety, quality and quality and efficacy of vaccines in developing countries.