Cervical cancer library

Vaccination

Featured resources

Cervical Cancer Prevention: Practical Experience Series (2011)
PATH
These documents summarize lessons learned from the PATH cervical cancer vaccine demonstration projects that can help guide future human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program planning, especially in low-resource settings around the globe.

Comprehensive cervical cancer prevention and control: a healthier future for girls and women (2013)
World Health Organization (WHO)
This WHO Guidance Note advocates for a comprehensive approach to cervical cancer prevention and control and is aimed at senior policy makers and programme managers. It describes the need to deliver effective interventions across the female life course from childhood through to adulthood.

HPV Vaccine Lessons Learnt (2016)
London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine and PATH
To aid decision-makers interested in HPV vaccine introduction or scale-up, the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine and PATH conducted a comprehensive review of HPV vaccine delivery experiences across 46 low- and middle-income countries. The lessons learnt from these countries can provide critical information for policymakers and programme planners.

Considerations regarding consent in vaccinating children and adolescents between 6 and 17 years old (2014)
WHO
This 8-page document is written for program managers who are planning to introduce vaccines for older children and adolescents aged between 6 and 17 years. It provides information that should be considered when preparing guidance notes on the consent process, or for clarifying questions from health workers who provide the vaccinations.

Feasibility of Delivering HPV Vaccine to Girls Aged 10 to 15 Years in Uganda (2015)
Mugisha E, LaMontagne DS, Katahoire AR, et al. African Health Sciences. 2015;15(1):33–41
This article summarizes a study that explored the feasibility of two HPV vaccine delivery strategies in Uganda: a stand-alone, school-based strategy that selected girls based on their enrollment in grade 5 and an age-based strategy that delivered the HPV vaccine based on the girls' age. The results showed that grade eligibility is more feasible than age selection for HPV vaccine delivery because more girls were vaccinated using this approach and it was the preferred strategy for health workers and teachers.

Genital warts in young Australians five years into national human papillomavirus vaccination programme: national surveillance data (2013)
Ali H, Donovan B, Wand H, et al. BMJ. 2013;346:f2032
In this study, the authors found no significant trend in the proportion of under 21 year old women diagnosed as having genital warts in the pre-vaccination period—8.8% in 2004 and 11.5% in 2007 (P=0.23). In the vaccination period, the proportion declined dramatically by 92.6%, to 0.85% in 2011 with only 13 cases diagnosed (P<0.001).

Human papillomavirus vaccine delivery strategies that achieved high coverage in low- and middle-income countries (2011)
LaMontagne DS, Barge S, Nga TL, et al. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2011;89:821–830B
This peer-reviewed article documents human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage after the demonstration projects conducted in India, Peru, Uganda, and Vietnam by PATH and national governments. The reasons for vaccine acceptance or refusal are also addressed.

Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (2014)
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
This document from the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices includes background information and a comprehensive summary of the evidence base for HPV vaccination.

HPV Vaccination in Africa: Lessons Learned from a Pilot Program in Uganda (2011)
PATH, Child Health and Development Centre (CHDC), and the Uganda National Expanded Program on Immunization (UNEPI)
In 2008–2009, PATH, CHDC, and UNEPI implemented a pilot vaccination program through through PATH’s HPV Vaccines: Evidence for Impact project. This overview summarizes points for policymakers and program managers looking to design HPV vaccination programs. Lessons learned may be especially applicable to other countries with similar cultural, economic, and health contexts.

HPV Vaccination in Latin America: Lessons Learned from a Pilot Program in Peru (2010)
PATH, Instituto de Investigación Nutricional (IIN), and Ministerio de Salud de Peru, Estrategia Sanitaria Nacional de Inmunizaciones (MINSA)
In 2006, PATH, IIN, and MINSA implemented a pilot HPV vaccination program in Peru through PATH’s HPV Vaccines: Evidence for Impact project. This overview summarizes points for policymakers and program managers looking to design HPV vaccination programs. Lessons learned may be especially applicable to other countries with similar cultural, economic, and health contexts.

HPV Vaccine Communication: Special considerations for a unique vaccine (2016)
WHO
This document presents communication guidance and specific considerations for countries that plan to introduce human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine into their national immunization programs. It includes assessments of social mobilization and communication of HPV vaccine implementation in Latvia, Malaysia, and Rwanda as well as information from a gathering to review HPV vaccine communication issues.

HPV Vaccine Introduction Clearing House
WHO
WHO has collected all their materials related to HPV vaccine introduction in one place with the intention of helping guide HPV vaccine policy, program, and communications managers in the development of successful strategies for the introduction and sustained delivery of HPV vaccination at a national level.

HPV vaccination in populations with high HIV prevalence (2014)
Cervical Cancer Action (CCA)
This three-page brief offers guidance on use of HPV vaccine in areas where HIV infection is high.

HPV vaccine safety (2010)
Cervical Cancer Action
This brief provides important new evidence on the safety of HPV vaccines. It includes useful information on vaccine safety reporting systems, the safety profile of HPV vaccines, and the use of HPV vaccines in special populations.

Improved Cervical Cancer Prevention: Planning Now for a Better Future (2010)
PATH, Association of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Uganda, Uganda Ministry of Health
This report documents an African regional conference on cervical cancer prevention held in September 2010 in Kampala, Uganda. Representatives from nine African countries met to share updates on cervical cancer vaccination and screening programs, and to plan regional strategies. Participants were from the fields of cancer, reproductive health, immunization, adolescent health and related areas. The report summarizes conference presentations and country discussions on priorities, activities, and needs for technical support.

Outlook. Progress in preventing cervical cancer: Updated evidence on vaccination and screening
Murray M. Outlook. 2010;27(2). PATH.
This 12-page issue of Outlook provides an update on opportunities for preventing cervical cancer through vaccination and screening. It summarizes recent evidence on the safety and efficacy of human papillomavirus vaccines as well as successful approaches for screening and treatment in low-resource areas. Other topics include cost-effectiveness, communication and training, and implications for policy and programs.

Strategies for HPV Vaccination in the Developing World (2010)
Cervical Cancer Action
Presents recent experience and successful strategies for reaching girls with HPV vaccine, including recommendations about target populations, vaccine access, and communication strategies.

Towards the eradication of HPV infection through universal specific vaccination (2013)
Crosignani P, De Stefani A, Fara GM, et al. BMC Public Health. 2013;13:642.
Citing studies on the natural history of HPV infection and related diseases in women and men, the increasing experience of HPV vaccination in women, the analysis of clinical effectiveness vs. economic efficacy of HPV vaccination, the authors maintain that these studies are supportive of the economic sustainability of vaccination programs both in women and men.

Update on human papillomavirus vaccine safety (2013)
WHO
The WHO Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety reviewed HPV vaccine safety data from the United States, Australia, Japan and the manufacturers of Cervarix® (GlaxoSmithKline) and Gardasil® (Merck). From the paper: "...four years after the last review of HPV vaccine safety and with >175 million doses distributed worldwide and more countries offering the vaccine through national immunization programmes, the Committee continues to be reassured by the safety profile of the available products." The discussion of HPV vaccine begins on page 309.

Vaccine Resource Library
PATH
PATH’s Vaccine Resource Library offers a wide variety of high-quality, scientifically accurate documents and links on vaccine-preventable diseases and topics in immunization.

WHO position paper on human papillomavirus vaccines (2014)
WHO
In accordance with its mandate to provide guidance to Member States on health policy matters, WHO issues regularly updated position papers on vaccines and vaccine combinations against diseases that have an international public health impact. This position paper on HPV vaccines includes official endorsement of a two-dose vaccination schedule for girls under 15 years. Available in French and English.

WHO/ICO Information Centre on HPV and Cervical Cancer
WHO and the Institut Català d’Oncologia
This website offers country-specific reports on cervical cancer burden of disease, prevalence of HPV infections, and related factors for cervical disease to evaluate prevention strategies.

General vaccination resources

Ensuring access to HPV vaccines through integrated services: a reproductive health perspective
Pollack AE, Balkin M, Edouard L, Cutts F and Broutet N on behalf of the WHO/United Nations Population Fund Working Group on Sexual and Reproductive Health and HPV Vaccines. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2007;85:57–63.
This seven-page article describes avenues for service delivery of HPV vaccines and critical information gaps that must be bridged in order to inform future sexual and reproductive health programming.

GARDASIL® quadrivalent HPV vaccine
Merck & Co., Inc.
Merck’s site is intended for both healthcare professionals and patients.

HPV vaccine page
US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Immunization Program
Designed for both patients and healthcare professionals, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's page offers overviews of HPV, cervical cancer, and the vaccine, as well as recommendations for the use of quadrivalent HPV vaccine and information about the Vaccines for Children program.